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  • Solar energy

    Solar energy is the most important basic renewable energy, biomass energy, wind energy, ocean energy, hydro energy are all derived from solar energy

  • Photovoltaic effect

    PV effect, the production of a voltage in a nonhomogeneous semiconductor, or at a junction between two types of material, by the absorption of light.

  • Photovoltaic industry

    PV industry chain consists of five aspects: raw silicon, silicon wafer, solar cell, solar cell modules, and application systems. In which, upstream supply chain includes raw silicon and silicon wafer;

  • Modified Siemens method

    At first, during the synthesis process, chlorine and hydrogen is interacted to produce hydrogen chloride (or outsourcing HCl), then at a certain temperature,

  • Silane method

    Silane (SiH4) is derived from hydrogenation of silicon tetrachloride, silicon alloy decomposition, hydride reduction, and direct hydrogenation of silicon.

  • Fluidized Bed Reactor method

    FBR method, under high temperature and high pressure, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, hydrogen chloride, and industrial silicon are introduced in a fluidized bed reactor as the raw materials to produce trichlorosilane (TCS)

  • Polycrystalline ingot casting

    The polycrystalline ingot casting is created by pouring molten metal into permanent or recycled moulds. After the solidification,

  • Directional solidification method

    Put raw silicon in a crucible and melt it down, then gradually have it descended from the thermal field, or connect a cold source to the bottom of

  • Casting method

    Pour the molten silicon liquid from the crucible to another mould, after solidification, it turns out to be a square ingots casting, the general size of the sliced silicon wafer is 10 cm square,

  • Wafer cutting

    In order to achieve the purposes of cutting the various types of brittle processing parts (such as single-crystal silicon, crystal, etc) into wafers,

  • Solar cell

    An electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by photoelectric effect or photochemical effect.

  • Thin-film solar cell

    As its name suggests, it is a sort of solar cell made from a layer of thin film, its silicon content is minimal, which make it easier to reduce the cost. In addition,

  • Monocrystalline silicon

    Single crystal silicon. It consists of silicon in which the crystal lattice of the entire solid is continuous, unbroken to its edges.

  • Czochralski Technique

    First, high-purity polysilicon is melted in a quartz crucible. Dopant impurity atoms will be added to the molten silicon to dope the silicon.

  • Crystal pulling

    Put the polysilicon in a quartz crucible, by heating up the electric resistance to melt it down, and maintain the temperature slightly higher than the melting point of silicon,

  • Neck narrowing

    A process to grow a certain length of crystal with slender neck in order to prevent dislocations of the seed crystal extend to the generated crystal.

  • Shoulder expanding

    Controlling the diameter of the crystal to the required width.

  • Equal-diameter growing

    According to the state of the molten silicon and the single crystal furnace, pulling the crystal up while maintaining the diameter of the crystal at the requested length.

  • Floating Zone method

    Using thermal energy on the semiconductor bar to create a molten region, then weld the single crystal seed.

  • Quasi-mono

    (Mono Like) is a new technology based on polycrystalline ingot casting, by partly using single crystal seed in crystal growth, acquire the polycrystalline silicon wafers which are

  • Quasi-mono seedless crystal casting

    Seedless crystal casting technique requires high precision in the early growth and controlling process of crystal nucleus. One way to do it is to use the crucible which has

  • Quasi-mono seed crystal casting

    Current mass production of single crystal is mostly using the technique of quasi-mono seed crystal casting. In this technology, first, place the seed crystal and doped silicon in a crucible,

  • Amorphous silicon

    α-Si, also known as noncrystalline silicon, is a from of monatomic silicon. It is a brown-black or dark-grey micro crystal. Compare with crystalline silicon,

  • Solar module (PV module)

    Is a packaged, inter-connected, inseparable assembly of minimum photovoltaic cells which has the ability to provide DC output by itself.

  • Solar cell array (PV array)

    According to the situation of PV installation, when application field requires higher voltage and current, and individual module does not meet this requirement,

  • PV system

    Is a system of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using solar panels and other accessory equipment.

  • Small solar power system

    The characteristic of this system is that it only has DC load and its bearing power is relatively low, the whole system is simple, easy to operate.

  • Simple DC power system

    The characteristic of this system is that it uses DC loads and has no special requirement for service time. The loads mainly used in daytime, so the system doesn’t include storage battery,

  • Large solar power system

    In the same way, this PV system applies to DC power system, but comparatively, this kind of solar PV system usually consumes more power,

  • AC/DC power system

    This kind of PV system has the ability to provide power for AC/DC load equipment, in the terms of system structure, compare with the three systems above,

  • Grid-connected system

    The most prominent characteristic of this solar PV system is the direct current generated from the PV array advances through the grid-connected inverter,

  • Hybrid power system

    A solar PV system which combines solar PV array with diesel generator as the alternative power source. The purpose of using this system is to utilize the advantages

  • Grid-connected hybrid power system

    This system is typically an integration of controllers and inverters. It employs computer chips to control the operation of entire system,

  • PV charge controller

    Applied in solar power generation systems, it is an automatic control device which regulates the charge process between multi-channel solar array to storage battery

  • Solar inverter

    It converts the variable DC output of a PV solar panel into a utility frequency AC. It is a reverse process of rectification.

  • Rectifying circuit

    The signal in power grid can be used as the benchmark for synchronisation.

  • Self-rectifying

    Determines the signal waveform based on the inner circuit structure inside the inverter and then supply it to grid.

  • Central inverter

    It has been used to rectify the output current generated from large-scale PV systems, and the rated output of these system range from 20 to 400 kWp.

  • Cascaded inverter

    Only the signal transmitted from the separated serial devices can be received, therefore, the rated output range from 1 to 3 kWp.

  • Multiple cascaded inverter

    Equipped with a variety of separated DC-DC inverters, these inverters send the signals back to a central inverter device. This specific design can be applied to various

  • AC component inverter

    Installed and equipped at every photovoltaic components, and consequently converts the output of all the components to AC.

  • Solar grade silicon

    It is a sort of high-purity silicon material with purity of more than 99.9999%.

  • PV power station

    A power generation system that converts solar radiation to electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect of solar cells, which, depending on its operating mode,

  • grid-off PV power station

    A PV power station that supplies power independently without connection to any public power grid. Uses of it can be found mostly in power supply for remote areas

  • grid-connected PV power station

    A PV power station that is connected with public power grid directly or indirectly.

  • solar cell

    A device that directly converts solar radiation into electrical energy.

  • PV module

    Also known as solar cell module, is a unit wherein a number of electrically interconnected solar cells are encapsulated to produce rated voltage and current

  • photovoltaic modules string

    A circuit unit in a PV power system wherein certain photovoltaic modules are connected in series to produce DC voltage output.

  • photovoltaic(PV)power unit

    In a PV power station, certain photovoltaic modules strings are combined together through a DC combiner-box, then go through an inverter and an isolating step-up

  • PV array

    Photovoltaic modules mounted on a supporting bracket are linked first in series then in parallel to form an array consisting of one or more photovoltaic power units.

  • PV supporting bracket

    A special supporting bracket designed for placing, mounting and fastening photovoltaic modules, also named bracket for short.

  • combiner-box

    A device in a PV power system that is used to combine the inputs from multiple photovoltaic modules connected in series and parallel.

  • inverter

    A device used in a PV power station to convert direct current into alternating current.

  • isolating Step-up transformer

    A transformer mounted between the AC output of an inverter and the public power grid (or load) to increase the voltage of the alternating current from

  • photovoltaic power project

    A physical project that uses photovoltaic modules to convert solar energy into electrical energy and is connected with public power grid, consisting of electrica

  • unit construction

    A unit construction has independent construction conditions but does not play the role of production capacity on a standalone basis.

  • partial construction

    A partial construction is a constituent part of a unit construction, which may be divided in terms of technical nature or structural elements,

  • itemized construction

    An itemized construction is a constituent part of a partial construction and can be divided based on the material types, construction technology, equipment categories, etc.

  • security and protection engineering

    The engineering designed to ensure the security of and prevent serious accidents from PV power station through the comprehensive use of security

  • radial connection

    In radial connection, each photovoltaic power unit is connected to the power station bus separately using a high-voltage circuit breaker.

  • tapped connection

  • ring connection

    In ring connection, ring main unit is used to make ring connection with the bus of the PV power station via only two high-voltage circuit breakers.

  • tracking system

    A device used to adjust the space angle of the plane of photovoltaic module through the joint work of mechanical, electrical and electronic circuits

  • single-axis tracking system

    A tracking system that rotates around a one-dimensional axis and is also known as one-dimensional tracking system. Single-axis tracking system may

  • dual-axis tracking system

    A tracking system that can rotate around a two-dimensional axis and is also known as two-dimensional tracking system.

  • collector line

    In the centralized grid-connected photovoltaic power system with dispersed inverters, the power transmission line which collects the AC power output of each inverter

  • Balance of System

    In the photovoltaic power system, the equipment and systems other than PV modules, including inverters, batteries, combiner-boxes,

  • Maximum system voltage

    The maximum withstand voltage of PV modules.

  • Point of common coupling(PCC)

    The coupling joint for more than one user in the grid.

  • Point of interconnection(POC)

    Also known as access point. It means the node of the transformer which is directly connected to the grid for PV power stations connected to

  • Islanding

    The state wherein the PV power station still supplies power for certain load in the public grid when disconnected from the grid.

  • Intentional islanding

    Islanding which occurs in an intentional way according to the pre-set control strategy.

  • Unintentional islanding

    Islanding which occurs in an unintentional and uncontrolled way.

  • Anti-islanding

    Preventing occurrence of unintentional islanding.

  • Peak Sunshine Hours

    The equivalent number of hours when the total solar irradiance in a certain time period equals that of a continuous light source with irradiance of 1000W/m2

  • Annual Peak Sunshine Hours of PV Station

    The equivalent number of hours when the total annual solar irradiation received by the PV array surface is converted under standard test conditions (irradiance: 1000W/m2).

  • Direct Normal Irradiance(DNI)

    The amount of radiation received by a surface perpendicular to the rays

  • Capacity of Installation

    Sum of nominal power (in Wp) of PV modules installed in the PV power station.

  • Solar time

    A timing system based on solar hour angle. In solar time, the moment when the solar disk is at the local place’s upper transit is zero hour.

  • angle of incidence

    The angle formed by a ray incident on a surface and a perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence.

  • azimuth angle

    The included angle between the projection of the line from the center of the sun to the observation point on the ground on the local horizontal plane

  • solar elevation angle

    The included angle between incident sun rays and the horizontal plane.

  • solar declination

    The included angle between the line from the center of the Earth to the center of the Sun and the equatorial plane (such angle in the Northern Hemisphere is positive)

  • hour angle

    The included angle between the projection of the Sun on the equatorial plane at a certain moment and the projection of the Sun on the equatorial plane at noon.

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